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Global Modernization Review (II):Modernity and Diversity in New Era


Global Modernization Review (II)

Modernity and Diversity in New Era


Professor Emeritus of Political Science and Sociology, University of Milan, Italy

President of International Social Science Council, UNESCO

Co‐Chair, Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Modernization Forum


Chuanqi HE

Prof. and director, China Center for Modernization Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Academician, International Eurasian Academy of Sciences

Co‐Chair, Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Modernization Forum

Chair, Organization Committee of the International Modernization Forum

Science Press



The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Modernization Forum and the Editorial Committee of the Proceedings of the IMF



Prof. Alberto Martinelli, Political Science and SociologyUniversity of Milan, Italy

Prof. Chuanqi He, China Center for Modernization Research, Chinese Academy of

Sciences, China


Member of Editorial Committee

Prof. Liping Bu, Alma College, USA

Prof. Zhengping Chen, Tsinghua University, China

Prof. Maurie J. Cohen, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA

Prof. Diego Coletto, University degli Studi di Milano‐Bicocca, Italy

Prof. Zhenghua DongPeking University, China

Prof. Zhulan FangRemin University of China China

Prof. Quanan Ha, Nankai University, China

Prof. Chuanqi HeChina Center for Modernization Research, CAS, China

Prof. Geoff Hodgson, University of Hertfordshire, UK

Prof. Eliseeva Irina, Institute of sociology, RAS, Russia

Prof. Martin Janicke, Free University Berlin, Germany

Prof. Yihua Jiang, Fudan University, China

Prof. Müller Karel, University of Karlovy, Czech Republic

Dr. Juha Kotilainen, University of Eastern Finland, Finland

Prof. Edwin Pak‐wah Leung, Seton Hall University, USA

Prof. Wen Li, Institute of Asia‐Pacific Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China

Prof. Jie‐Hyun Lim, Hanyang University, Korea

Prof. Alberto Martinelli, University of Milan, Italy

Prof. Arthur P.J. Mol, Wageningen University, Netherlands

Prof. Munir Morad, Anglia Ruskin University‐Chelmsford, UK

Prof. Jose Antonio Ocampo, Columbia University, USA

Prof. Chengdan Qian, Peking University, China

Prof. Gert Spaargaren, Wageningen University, Netherlands

Prof. Piotr Sztompka, Jagiellonian University at Krakow, Poland

Prof. Edward Tiryakian, Duke University, USA

Prof. Catalin Turliuc, Romanian Academy, Romania

Prof. Fedotova Valentina, Institute of Philosophy, RAS, Russia

Prof. Hellmut Wollmann, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany

Prof. Zhengzhong Xu, Chinese Academy of Governance, China

Prof. Yiyong Yang, Academy of Macroeconomic Research, China

Prof. Xian Zhou, Nanjing University, China

Prof. Lixing Zou, China Development Bank, China



Modernization has been a worldwide phenomenon since about 18th century. It changed not only people’s lives in all aspects including political, economic, social and cultural life, but also the human development, ecological and world system etc. Modernization movement is just like an international marathon game of national development, in which the countries running ahead become developed counties while the rest become developing ones, and cultural diversity exists across time and space.

Today, almost all countries in the world are undergoing some kind of modernization consciously or unconsciously, and the modernization drive can also be set as a national goal directly or indirectly. The need has arisen to promote people’s understanding of modernization process through the international comparative and interdisciplinary study.

The 2nd International Modernization Forum: Modernization and Diversity (IMF2016) was held at China Hall of Science & Technology in Beijing in May 20-22, 2016. The China Center for Modernization Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences; the International Social Science Council, UNESCO; Law & Development Academy, Peking University; and the Theory and Modernization Magazine are the co-sponsors of the IMF2016. The forum has received more than 60 papers and 90 scholars have attended the meeting. The Association for Modernization Studies, China Society of Futures Studies was found and Prof. Chuanqi He became the president of AMS, CSFS.

The Global Modernization Review II presents the proceedings of the Second International Modernization Forum. It includes modernization and diversity, multiple modernities and cultural diversity, driving forces & paths of modernization, social modernization and human development, ecological modernization and green development, regional modernization and reduction of poverty and inequalities, the appendix with world modernization indexes 2012.

The international modernization forum is an international arena for modernization study and its result is an important contribution to our collective understanding of modernization phenomenon. It provides valuable guidance for the further study, and opens the way to significant international and interdisciplinary cooperation for modernization researches.




This book was the selections of the main outputs of the second international modernization forum held in Beijing in 2016 (IMF2016). The China Center for Modernization Research (CCMR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is the host of the conference. The organization committee of the IMF2016 includes the honorary chairman Academician Zhou Guangzhao, former president of the CAS, and the chairman Prof. Chuanqi He, director of CCMR, the members Prof. Zhenghua Dong, Prof. Xiwen Liu, Prof. Zhulan Fang, Mr. Xifang Tang, Prof. Lixing Zou, and the secretary Dr. Qing Ye, Dr. jing Jin, Dr. Lei LIU, Dr. Wenyu Zhu.


The sections of the IMF2016 have been chaired separately by the leading scientists Prof. Alberto Martinelli, Prof. Boying Zhang, Prof. Edward Tiryakian, Prof. Chuanqi He, Prof. Eliseeva Irina, Prof. Lixing Zou, Prof. Jinyuan Liu, Prof. Atle Midttun, Prof. Catalin Turliuc, Prof. Zhulan Fang, Prof. Jin Feng, Dr. Juha Kotilainen, Prof. Zhigang Wang. Prof. Chuanqi He, Prof. Alberto Martinelli and Prof. Boying Zhang presented the opening-speech, welcome-speech or closing-speech. Prof. Alberto Martinelli, Prof. Piotr Sztompka, Prof. Edward Tiryakian and Prof. Chuanqi He presented the keynote speeches.


The participants and contributions of the IMF2016 came from 14 countries including: Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, Korea Republic, the Netherlands, P. R. China, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States, Norway and India.


This item was edited by the editorial committee of the proceedings of the IMF. Prof. Alberto Martinelli and Prof. Chuanqi He are the co-editor-in-chief of the editorial committee and co-chairman of the scientific advisory committee of the IMF. Members of the editorial committee and the scientific advisory committee are the same. Their names are listed before.


The staffs of the CCMR, CAS have contributed to the IMF2016, they are Dr. Jing Jin, Dr. Qing Ye, Dr. Wenyu Zhu, Dr. Xijun Zhao, Dr. Yang Li , Dr. Lei Liu and Dr. Li Li. Dr. Wenyu Zhu is also the secretary of the editorial committee.


The Bureau of International Cooperation of CAS, Bureau of Development and Planning of CAS have provided the financial support to the IMF2016 and its publications.








Part one: Modernization and Diversity in the New Era


Modernization and the Sustainable Development Goals: the case of the European Union

Alberto Martinelli

Moral Capital: An Important Prerequisite for Social Change and Successful Modernization

Piotr Sztompka

Global Challenges of Modernization

Edward Tiryakian

Three Paths Towards National Modernization

Chuanqi HE

What’s Modernization in the 21st Century: A Chinese Version

Chuanqi HE



Part two: Multiple Modernities and Cultural Diversity


Harmonious coexistence of tradition and modernity- inspirations from the lasting survival of the Amish community in modern American society


Cultural Diversity and Social Contradictions of the Modernization

Nikolay Lapin

Culture Trend of Modernization as Reflected in Office Space Design

Jiang LU

Consolidation, Integration, Modernization: From the shaping of the framework “Mitteleuropa” to the European Union

Lorand Madly

Global Modernization Trend in the Perspective of Human History

Lixing ZOU

Urban Diversification and Social Diversity

Zhongguang YANG

Attitudes Toward Modernization and Rural-urban Relationship: A Comparison between Modern China and Japan

Chao YE

Three Trends of Chinese Learning and Construction of Multi-modernity in China

Aiguo HE, Ying YAN

The Contours of Russian Modernization

Grigoriy Kanarsh




Part three: Dynamics & paths of modernization


Modernization of Russia: Contemporary Trends

Irina Eliseeva

How did Romania become Modern? A South Eastern European Experience during the 20-th Century

Catalin Turliuc

Specifics and differentiation of the balance of modernization processes in Russian regions

Lastochkina Maria

Progressive Reform: Path of Political Modernization in Britain and Its Inspirations

Jinyuan LIU, Yuan LIANG

The Guarantee of Progress and Harmony: Modernization and Livelihood Improvement in Modern America

Pengfei YANG

International Inequality and the Global Crisis: Managing Markets for Sustainable Growth

E.A. Brett

A New Institutional Economy Growth Theory from the Angle of the Economic Rights

Zhu-lan FANG, Xiong KUANG

A Historical Review of World Industrial Modernization


Challenges and Policy suggestions for China's Agricultural Modernization

Chuanqi HE, Jing JIN

Analysis on Diversity of Service Modernization: A View Based on Second Modernization Evaluation

Qing YE

The Application Research of Frontier Economic Theories in Middle-income Countries

Xiaoning BAI, Bin WU, Yu FENG, He ZHANG



Part four: Ecological modernization & green development



Staging Pathways Towards Ecomodernity

Atle MidttunNina Witoszek

Ecological Modernization and Resilience of Resource Communities

Juha Kotilainen

Ecological civilization Construction Demonstration Areas in China from a Three-dimensional Theoretical Perspective

Qingzhi HUAN

After Paris: Global Trend of Green Development and China’s Ecological Modernization Strategy

Huiming LI

Establishment of Low-carbon City Construction Policy Toolkit and Analysis of the Policy Tools Effectiveness

Dong DU, Sao-yang GE

Rural Ecological Modernization: Evaluation Indicators and Case Study


Time to Reinstate Poise of Nature

R. V. Karanth

On Promoting the Construction of Ecological Civilization from the Perspective of Ecological Modernization

Jing-xuan LI, Si-xue LI


Part five: Social modernization & human development


Social modernization and quality of life measurement in Russia

Lyudmila Belyaeva

A Study on China’s Structural Reform in Social Fields

Yiyong YANG, Yan GUAN, Haiyuan WAN, Yifang WEI

Historical Experience of Modernization in Russia

V. Burov

Deepening of the Division of Labor, Social Structure, and the Modernization of National Governance

Xiaowei XUAN

The Youth Entrepreneurship As a Factor of Social Modernization of Society

Pavel Deryugin, Alena Smelovа, Reseda Salakhutdinovа, Anna Shilyaevа, Liubov Lebedintseva

Modernization Paradigm which combines Scientific, Environmental & Technological Progress with Socio-Economic Development within the framework of Political Participation

Harjit S. Anand

The Discussion of the Ecology in the Network Society

Ling Yi WANG, Hua Ming SONG

To Explore a Chinese Discourse of Modernity Research Paradigm

Yuan GAO, Feile GAO, Jianbiao GUO



Part six: Regional modernization & reduction of poverty and inequalities


Socio-economic development of the region in the context of modernization processes (case study of St. Petersburg)

Liubov Lebedintseva

Regional Modernization and Sustainable Development in a Mining Region from the Habsburg Monarchy (Transylvania) 1750-1914

Iosif Marin Balog

Evaluation of Regional Modernization of China’s 52 Regions

Yang LI, Li LI

Interactive Mechanism between Regional Economic Integration and Regional Modernization

Xijun ZHAO



World Modernization Indexes 2015


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